By Ladislav Cemic
This publication provides the elemental rules of thermodynamics for geosciences, in response to the author’s personal classes over a couple of years. Many examples aid to appreciate how mineralogical difficulties might be solved by way of utilising thermodynamic principles.
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Additional info for Thermodynamics in mineral sciences : an introduction
60) Eq. 60) holds for mechanical mixtures and ideal solutions. The precondition for its validity is that by the process of mixing no or only very little strain is introduced into the solution and that any chemical interaction effects between the components plays a minor role. Example: Consider an olivine single crystal consisting of 92 mole percent forsterite and 8 mole percent fayalite. Its mass is 5 g. What is the volume of the crystal if an ideal mixing between forsterite and fayalite is assumed?
12) where Vo and D are the volume of the gas at 0°C and the coefficient of thermal expansion, respectively. t is the temperature in degree celsius. Gay-Lussac found D to be constant having a value of 1/267. Experiments conducted by Regnault in 1847 yielded a value for D of 1/273. Later more precise measurements showed that some gases obey Gay-Lussac better than others. However, the deviation from the law was found to become smaller with decreasing pressure for all gases. If P in Eq. 15. 15 + t T V = V o § 1 + ----------------· = V o § ------------------------· = V o ----- v T.
13) In Eq. 13) T designates the thermodynamic temperature as defined in Eq. 23). According to the Gay-Lussac‘s law a gas would have zero volume at 0 K but this is impossible, therefore, the absolute zero is physically not attainable. Hence, the Gay-Lussac’s law is a limiting law and it holds strictly only for a hypothetical gas consisting of molecules having negligible volume and no intermolecular interaction. Such a gas is called ideal or perfect. Real gases approach this state at very low pressures and high temperatures.