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J J. Chadwick, ibid. 128 (1930), 114. Chap. IT, 1 THE FORCES BETWEEN PROTONS comes at 90 in the centre of gravity system (45 laboratory), and at this angle: forces 39 in the (13) Usually when discussing the scattering of indistinguishable particles the differential cross-section is expressed as a ratio of the observed scattering to that predicted for Coulomb forces alone (denoted by in Fig. 9) and is commonly referred to as 'the ratio to Mott Scattering*, EM (6). Thus, RM (fa) expressed in terms of an #-wavo phase-shift for protons wave is given by the quantity in the curly brackets in eq.

This means that the phase shift, S is positive. The fact that the singlet , cross-section is 15 times larger than the - triplet then means: -3-9^. (34) The extraordinarily * large value of a Q is obviously connected with the accident' that the straight-line solution has to be joined to the sine a Por real bound ^ state \ " RADIUS me 2 units) >(jne/ a For virtual state FIG. 12. Wave-function (times r) for n-p singlet state and zero energy. wave so close to a maximum in the latter at 90. This is the simplest importance of wave-mechanical resonance phenomena to nuclear physics, but by no means the most striking example.

In this approximation we get, (27) may be equating the right-hand sides of eqs. (24) and (27), the rough estimates: ,_. , For more careful work, one solves eq. (27) for 8 using the correct bombarding energy (in centre of gravity system, so this value is one -half the laboratory energy of the neutrons) and substitutes in 2 2 eq. (26). v. e. x 10- 24 cm. 2 E 0, (29) This result, eq. (29), is to be compared with the observed crosssection for the scattering of thermal neutrons by hydrogen, f viz. 20xlO~ 24 cm.