Read e-book online The Diamond Makers PDF

By Robert M. Hazen

On account that time immemorial, we have now valuable diamonds for his or her beautiful good looks and unequalled hardness. but, many of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and absolutely unaccessible to us--if simply we knew how you can fabricate them! within the Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human wish to exceed nature and create a man-made diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking technology, circumstances of sour contention, situations of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and technological know-how to bare the extreme technological advances and devastating mess ups of the diamond undefined. alongside the way in which, readers should be brought to the intense, frequently eccentric and arguable, pioneers of high-pressure learn who've harnessed crushing pressures and hot temperatures to rework nearly any carbon-rich fabric, from highway tar to peanut butter, into the main prized of all gem stones. Robert M. Hazen is the writer of fifteen books, together with the bestseller, technological know-how concerns: attaining clinical Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has gained various awards for his study and clinical writing.

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Stones with an RI higher 45 Gemstones and light than that of the contact liquid or the glass are said to give a negative reading. Some stones stubbornly refuse to show satisfactory refractometer readings. This may be due to some eccentricity of polishing - coated stones are unlikely to give a response and this coating (which has a different RI from that of the main body of the stone) can often be removed with jeweller's rouge (powdered hematite). Real and apparent depths Where a microscope with calibrated fine focus adjustment is available the direct measurement of refractive index is possible.

CUBIC (isometric): three axes of equal length and intersecting at right angles (Fig. 1). 2. TETRAGONAL: three axes, two equal in length, the third longer or shorter, meeting at right angles (Fig. 2). 3. OR THO RHOMBIC: three axes, none equal in length, meeting at right angles (Fig. 3). 4. MONOCLINIC: three axes, none equal in length, one being at right angles to the other two which do not meet at right angles (Fig. 4). 5. TRICLINIC (anorthic): three axes, none equal in length and none meeting at right angles (Fig.

The tetrahedral unit cells of the quartz are arranged in a helical way, spiralling to the left in some crystals and to the right in others. Quartz is almost always twinned according to two different laws: the Brazil twin in which left- and righthanded crystals interpenetrate and the Dauphine twin in which two rightor left-handed crystals interpenetrate. Attractive crystals of quartz, sometimes in two varieties, may be found inJapan twins in which the two individuals form a V shape. Zircon: crystals show prismatic (usually second-order) and pyramid Gem crystals 35 forms.

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