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By Clément Lemaignan

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La rupture fragile est obtenue par clivage, rupture le long de plans denses de chaque grain. L'essai Charpy permet de quantifier cette transition. On introduit I'approche statistique de la rupture, correspondant a celle declenchee par la rupture d'un element de volume particulier. Le clivage est un mode de rupture dont le mecanlsme principal est la separation des plans atomiques pratiquement sans deformation. Particulierement frequent dans les cristaux ioniques, il peut etre observe dans les metaux, en particulier dans le cas des faibles symetries cristallines comme les cubiques centres ou hexagonaux.

Un developpement limite de ces fonctions pres du pole permet d'extraire une fonction, localement divergente, qui satisfait aux equations de 1'elasticite et aux conditions aux limites, et permet done de decrire la singularite de contraintes. 3) CHAPITRE 4 - PERTURBATIONS DES CONTRAINTES INDUITES PAR GEOMETRIQUES 39 Fig. 6. Systeme de reperes utilises pour decrire la singularite des contraintes en tete de fissure. La solution presentee est celle correspondant aux conditions de deformation plane. Elle conduit a des comportements specifiques, dont les consequences seront decrites dans le chapitre 8 sur la deformation plastique en fond de fissure.

3). 4. Lors de la mise en charge, il y a concentration de contraintes autour des inclusions en raison de leur module d'Young different de celui de la matrice. Les contraintes plus fortes, qui se developperont au voisinage Fig. 2. Aspect macroscopique d'une rupture ductile. 54 Fig. 3. Cupules en rupture ductile. Fig. 4. Formation des cupules. CLEMENT LEMAIGNAN CHAPITRE 6 - LA RUPTURE DUCTILE 55 des inclusions, y favorisent une deformation plastique localisee. Les incompatibilites de deformation entre la matrice et les inclusions conduisent a la rupture des inclusions ou leur decohesion a 1'interface inclusion - matrice, selon leurs resistances relatives.

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