By Jean-François Joanny, Jacques Prost (auth.), Vincent Rivasseau (eds.)
This new quantity within the Poincaré Seminar sequence, describing contemporary advancements on the interface among physics and biology, is directed in the direction of a huge viewers of physicists, biologists, and mathematicians. either the theoretical and experimental facets are coated, and specific care is dedicated to the pedagogical nature of the shows. the 1st survey article, by means of Jean-Francois Joanny and Jacques Prost, describes the theoretical advances made within the research of "active gels", with purposes to liquid crystals and mobilephone motility. Jasper van der Gucht and Cécile Sykes then document on fresh advances made with biomimetic version structures within the figuring out of cytokinesis. the subsequent article, through Jonathon Howard, offers numerous molecular versions for motor proteins, that are in comparison with experimental effects for kinesin. David Lacoste and Kirone Mallick then convey theoretically that comparable ratchet types of motor proteins clearly fulfill a basic time-reversal symmetry, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation. Jean-Francois Allemand, David Bensimon and Vincent Croquette and their coauthors describe the most recent advances made within the real-time unmarried molecule research of the enzymes focused on DNA replication. Raymond E. Goldstein addresses the matter of realizing, from a physics viewpoint, the using forces in the back of the organic evolution of multicellularity, utilizing Volvocine algae as version organisms. Stanislas Dehaene ultimately addresses the key problem of knowing the neuronal mechanism of recognition, and speculates at the attainable theoretical factors of MRI experiments. photograph of the Poincaré Seminar 2009 Contributing authors: Jean-François Allemand, David Bensimon, Vincent Croquette, Stanislas Dehaene, Ding Fangyuan, Raymond E. Goldstein, Jonathon Howard, Jean-François Joanny, David Lacoste, Timothée Lionnet, Kirone Mallick, Maria Manosas, Élise Praly, Jacques Prost, Cécile Sykes, Jasper van der Gucht
By Lionel Bening;Harry D. Foster
System designers, laptop scientists and engineers have c- tinuously invented and hired notations for modeling, speci- ing, simulating, documenting, speaking, instructing, verifying and controlling the designs of electronic platforms. in the beginning those s- tems have been represented through digital and fabrication information. F- lowing C. E. Shannon’s revelation of 1948, good judgment diagrams and Boolean equations have been used to symbolize electronic platforms in a fa- ion that de-emphasized digital and fabrication element whereas revealing logical habit. A small variety of circuits have been made to be had to take away the abstraction of those representations while it was once fascinating to take action. As process complexity grew, block diagrams, timing charts, series charts, and different photo and symbolic notations have been came upon to be invaluable in summarizing the gross beneficial properties of a approach and describing the way it operated. additionally, it usually appeared beneficial or acceptable to reinforce those files with long verbal descriptions in a typical language. whereas every one notation was once, and nonetheless is, a wonderfully legitimate technique of expressing a layout, loss of standardization, conciseness, and f- mal definitions interfered with communique and the understa- ing among teams of individuals utilizing assorted notations. This challenge was once well-known early and formal languages started to evolve within the Fifties while I. S. Reed came across that flip-flop enter equations have been similar to a sign up move equation, and that xvi tor-like notation. increasing those techniques Reed constructed a no- tion that grew to become often called a check in move Language (RTL).